Knowledge Notes are short briefs (typically 4-6 pages in length) that capture lessons of experience from Bank operations and research in a succinct and easily digestible format (and usually reference larger works found elsewhere in the OKR). Work is underway to expand the collection to draw in more lessons that the staff want to highlight from ongoing and recent lending and economic and sector work (ESW).

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Recent Submissions

  • Air Pollution 

    Naber, Helena (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-03)
    This note is the first in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) knowledge notes aimed to promote debate, discussion, and dissemination of knowledge for the most pertinent development ...
  • Do Special Tax Regimes for Micro and Small Enterprises Encourage Formal Firm Creation? 

    Bruhn, Bruhn; Loeprick, Jan (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2014-11)
    This note highlights research using administrative data from the Georgian Tax Authority to estimate the effects of special tax regimes for micro and small enterprises on formal firm ...
  • Regional Inovation Policy and Multilevel Governance in Developing Countries 

    Guimon, Jose (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2014-10)
    Innovation policy is increasingly conceived as the shared responsibility of national and subnational governments, yet most countries are struggling with multilevel governance. This ...
  • Russia Monthly Economic Developments, July 2015 

    Hans, Birgit; Baffes, John; Emelyanova, Olga; Ulatov, Sergei; Vashakmadze, Ekaterine (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-07-01)
    In June, the European Council extended EU economic sanctions against Russia for another six months while Russia extended its food import ban against Western countries for a year. A ...
  • Poverty Reduction in Ghana—Progress and Challenges 

    Molini, Vasco; Paci, Pierella (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-10)
    Ghana over the past two decades has enjoyed steady and robust growth, mainly through a modification in its economic structure: as the economy gradually shifted out of agriculture and into services, the country experienced ...
  • Internal Migration and Household Consumption in Ghana 

    Ranzani, Marco; Pavelesku, Dan (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-10)
    Over the past two decades Ghana has seen a rapid increase in internal migration. Census data show that internal migration increased from 38.6 percent to 43.3 percent between 2000 and 2010. According to the latest Ghana ...
  • Managing Credit Risk in Microfinance 

    Leonard, Matt (International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC, 2013-05)
    Enda Inter-Arabe (ENDA), a market-leading microfinance institution (MFI) in Tunisia, was one of the first MFIs affected by a repayment crisis linked to the so-called Arab Spring. ...
  • Seeing is Believing 

    Vishwanath, Tara; Blankespoor, Brian; Calandra, Faythe; Krishnan, Nandini; Mahadevan, Meera; Yoshida, Nobuo (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2014-06)
    The Palestinian Territories have a uniquely fragmented geography, characterized by the isolation of Gaza from the rest of the world, and the man-made barriers to mobility within the ...
  • Climate Change and Migration in the MENA Region 

    Wodon, Quentin; Liverani, Andrea (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2014-07)
    Climate change and climate-induced migration (Foresight, 2011) are major global concerns. This is true for the MENA region as well. Yet empirical data on how perceptions of climate ...
  • Poverty and Shared Prosperity at a Glance 

    World Bank (Washington, DC, 2014-09-01)
    This brief on Tajikistan displays the trends, performance, demographics, contributors, and national data related to poverty and prosperity development.
  • Achieving MDGs 4 and 5 

    Sarker, Intissar; Saadat, Seemeen; Cortez, Rafael; Hamed Abdel-Hamid, Alaa Mahmoud (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2014-08)
    Egypt is a lower-middle-income country with a GNI per capita (PPP) of US$ 5,654 in 2012. Since the Arab Spring, Egypt s economic growth has slowed to 0.6 percent in 2012. Half of Egypt ...
  • Want to Keep Tourists Away? Keep Flying Solo 

    Briceno-Garmendia, Cecilia; Bofinger, Heinrich; Cubas, Diana; Millan-Placci, Maria Florencia (World Bank Group, Washington, DC, 2014-12)
    The island states of the eastern Caribbean are wastefully competing with each other for the lucrative, yet stagnant, stay-over tourist trade by ‘flying solo’: separately building ...
  • Mapping Manila Transit 

    Krambeck, Holly (World Bank Group, Washington, DC, 2015-01)
    Whether they attempt to build jeepney stops, expand transit access, or improve bus routes, transit projects across much of the developing world are often hampered by (1) the lack of ...
  • Boosting Mass Transit through Entrepreneurship 

    Pulido, Daniel; Portabales, Irene (World Bank Group, Washington, DC, 2015-02)
    Most of the world’s urban mass transit systems cannot cover operating costs, let alone capital expenses, through farebox revenues. On average, 25 percent of metro operating expenditures ...
  • Advance Funding for Infrastructure PPPs 

    Kerf, Michel (World Bank Group, Washington, DC, 2015-03)
    Public private partnerships (PPPs) for infrastructure projects require substantial initial funding that private operators in developing countries can rarely obtain in the domestic ...
  • The Security and Trade Facilitation Nexus 

    Kerswell, Clay; Kunaka, Charles (World Bank, Washington, DCB, 2015-05)
    Improving levels of trade facilitation is one of the remaining challenges to enhancing connectivity and trade growth in South Asia, but border and internal security concerns are often ...
  • Georgia 

    World Bank (Washington, DC, 2012-06)
    This country note for Georgia is part of a series of country briefs that summarize information relevant to climate change and agriculture for three countries in the Southern Caucasus ...
  • Responsible Boards 

    Arguden, Yilmaz (International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC, 2015-02)
    As external pressures - including resource scarcity, globalization, and access to information - continue to increase, the way corporations respond to sustainability challenges will ...
  • Haiti : Can Non-Public Schools Fill the Gap for Poor Children? 

    World Bank (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-02)
    Worldwide, some 57 million primary school age children don't have the chance to go to school. Many factors hold these children back: poverty, poor health and overcrowded or faraway ...
  • Incorporating Energy from Renewable Resources into Power System Planning 

    Madrigal, Marcellino; Jordan, Rhonda Lenai (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2014-12)
    Incorporating energy from renewable resources into power system planning is an important issue. As countries generate more energy from renewable sources, that energy must become part ...

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